A delicious research

First of all, sorry for the long absence. A lot of work entails a lack of time, but also a lot of experience from which some blog posts can be born at some point. Hopefully.

Today I want to talk about the curious case of the terms used by several languages to refer to a delicious fruit, the peach. In one of my lessons my student and I realized that this term was very similar in all the languages we knew, except in Spanish. This led me to make a little research and I discovered some interesting issues that I wanted to share here. Of course, there are many more languages in which the term is also different, but at that moment we did not know more than just a few, even if from different language families.

Peach

So, where does “peach” come from? It comes from the Latin name of the fruit, persica, through the Old French peach and the Middle English peche. Persica comes from the Greek persikē, meaning “Persian”, since people in the Classical times used to believe that this fruit came from Persia. We also find the Latin name malum Persicum, meaning “Persian apple”. This term is the ancestor of the English peach, but also of the French pêche, the Catalan préssec, the Galician pexego, the Portuguese pêssego, the German Pfirsich, the Finnish persikka, the Gaelic péitseog, the Italian pesco, the Lithuanian persikas, the Latvian persiks, the Dutch perzik, the Romanian piersic, the Russian персик, or the Swedish persika, among others. As we can see, quite a big group.

However, in Spanish this fruit is called melocotón. This term also comes from Latin, but not from the Latin name of the fruit, but from malus cotonus, which meant “Coton apple”which was the Latin name for the quince tree. And why did the name of this tree end up being adapted as the name of another tree? Apparently, Romans used to graft peaches near the roots of the quince trees, believing that this technique would be beneficial for the tree. In some Spanish-speaking countries peaches can also be called duraznos, coming from the Latin “durus acinus”, which means “of hard skin”.

quinces

Quinces

There are other languages in which the term comes also from persica, but there were some modifications. Three Scandinavian languages received the term from German, where we can find the letters “Pf”. In Norwegian, Danish, and Icelandic, the “p” was lost and the “f” remained. Therefore, we have fersken, ferskentræ, and ferskja respectively.

So, as we can see, the Latin term for “peach” had a big influence in many present-day languages, and Latin also brought as the Spanish term, even if through a different tree. I hope that you enjoyed this little anecdote and that we do not need to wait 4 more months until the next entry! : )

“An offer he can’t refuse…”

Starting with this quote from the classic movie “The Godfather” by Francis Ford Coppola I want to discuss an interesting topic that I had never thought about until a couple of weeks ago. In one of my English lessons a student was explaining something about her goddaughter, but she didn’t remember the word for this and said it in Finnish: “kummityttö”. Suddenly, all the other students started to say that the word she was looking for was “goddaughter” “because it’s like in “godfather”, like the movie.” This made me think about the difference between Finnish and most of the other languages when referring to these relationships. I have been making a little research and I couldn’t find another language that behaves like Finnish in this.

Most languages refer to the godfather and the godmother including (directly or indirectly) the words for “father” and “mother”, and thus showing the concept of that these people would take over the education of the child should something bad happen to the parents. It would be something like “substitute parents”. Therefore, it is important to include the words for “father” and “mother”. But in Finnish the words that they include are “setä” and “täti”, which mean “uncle” and “aunt”. The godfather is “kummisetä” and the godmother is “kummitäti”.

kummisetä1 kummisetä2

In English we do include the words “father” and “mother”, but this happens in all the languages I have analyzed: In Spanish we say “padrino” and “madrina”, including the root of “padre” and “madre”. Most of the Romance languages also use this method. In Portuguese they have “padrinho” and “madrinha”, similar to the Galician “padriño” and “madriña”. In Catalan, however, they talk about “padrí” and “padrina”, including only the concept of the father. In French they have “parrain” and “marraine”, following the same pattern as their Southern neighbours. In Italian the words are the same as in Spanish: “padrino” and “madrina”, though in the South of the country they also use “compare” and “commare”, keeping the concepts of father and mother but in the end of the words.

German, as Catalan, includes only the masculine concept: “Pate” and “Patin”. But the other Germanic languages follow the most common method, like English. Thus, we have Norwegian, Swedish and Danish that share the terms: “gudfar” and “gudmor”. In Icelandic they have “guðfaðir” and”guðmóðir”, the same roots again. In Faroese the words change a bit as well, but the roots still refer to father and mother: “gudpápar” and “gudmammur”. In Dutch they continue with the Germanic tradition by calling them “peetvader” and “peetmoeder”.

But this trend is not only found in Germanic and Romance languages. In Polish they use a different construction but they include the words for “father” and “mother”: “ojciec chrzestny” (being “ojciec” father”), and “matka chrzestna” (being “matka” mother, and as a funny note: “matka” means trip in Finnish… This is why I love languages!). In Russian they say “крёстный отец” and “крёстная мать”, which makes sense since “отец” means “father” and “мать” is “mother”.

Hungarian, a language of the Finno-Ugric family don’t follow the system of its distant relative, but follow the mainstream path instead: They have “keresztapa” because “apa” means “father”; and “keresztanya”, since “anya” means “mother”.

In Asian languages we have, once again, the same: Chinese children can have a “教父” and a “教母” and, as you can imagine by now, “父” is the character for “father” and “母” means “mother”. Japanese use these same characters but the words change slightly: “代父” and “代母”.

So, why is Finnish so alone in this? Why did they choose to use the words “uncle” and “aunt” instead of “father” and “mother” like the other languages? In my research I haven’t found any other language that behaves like Finnish or even in a different way than the common trend, but there are many languages in the world and there may be other languages that have different ways of expressing this relationship. If someone knows more examples of languages that use “uncle” and “aunt”, or even totally different concepts, I would really like to read about it in the comments. So please, don’t hesitate to share it with us.