“An offer he can’t refuse…”

Starting with this quote from the classic movie “The Godfather” by Francis Ford Coppola I want to discuss an interesting topic that I had never thought about until a couple of weeks ago. In one of my English lessons a student was explaining something about her goddaughter, but she didn’t remember the word for this and said it in Finnish: “kummityttö”. Suddenly, all the other students started to say that the word she was looking for was “goddaughter” “because it’s like in “godfather”, like the movie.” This made me think about the difference between Finnish and most of the other languages when referring to these relationships. I have been making a little research and I couldn’t find another language that behaves like Finnish in this.

Most languages refer to the godfather and the godmother including (directly or indirectly) the words for “father” and “mother”, and thus showing the concept of that these people would take over the education of the child should something bad happen to the parents. It would be something like “substitute parents”. Therefore, it is important to include the words for “father” and “mother”. But in Finnish the words that they include are “setä” and “täti”, which mean “uncle” and “aunt”. The godfather is “kummisetä” and the godmother is “kummitäti”.

kummisetä1 kummisetä2

In English we do include the words “father” and “mother”, but this happens in all the languages I have analyzed: In Spanish we say “padrino” and “madrina”, including the root of “padre” and “madre”. Most of the Romance languages also use this method. In Portuguese they have “padrinho” and “madrinha”, similar to the Galician “padriño” and “madriña”. In Catalan, however, they talk about “padrí” and “padrina”, including only the concept of the father. In French they have “parrain” and “marraine”, following the same pattern as their Southern neighbours. In Italian the words are the same as in Spanish: “padrino” and “madrina”, though in the South of the country they also use “compare” and “commare”, keeping the concepts of father and mother but in the end of the words.

German, as Catalan, includes only the masculine concept: “Pate” and “Patin”. But the other Germanic languages follow the most common method, like English. Thus, we have Norwegian, Swedish and Danish that share the terms: “gudfar” and “gudmor”. In Icelandic they have “guðfaðir” and”guðmóðir”, the same roots again. In Faroese the words change a bit as well, but the roots still refer to father and mother: “gudpápar” and “gudmammur”. In Dutch they continue with the Germanic tradition by calling them “peetvader” and “peetmoeder”.

But this trend is not only found in Germanic and Romance languages. In Polish they use a different construction but they include the words for “father” and “mother”: “ojciec chrzestny” (being “ojciec” father”), and “matka chrzestna” (being “matka” mother, and as a funny note: “matka” means trip in Finnish… This is why I love languages!). In Russian they say “крёстный отец” and “крёстная мать”, which makes sense since “отец” means “father” and “мать” is “mother”.

Hungarian, a language of the Finno-Ugric family don’t follow the system of its distant relative, but follow the mainstream path instead: They have “keresztapa” because “apa” means “father”; and “keresztanya”, since “anya” means “mother”.

In Asian languages we have, once again, the same: Chinese children can have a “教父” and a “教母” and, as you can imagine by now, “父” is the character for “father” and “母” means “mother”. Japanese use these same characters but the words change slightly: “代父” and “代母”.

So, why is Finnish so alone in this? Why did they choose to use the words “uncle” and “aunt” instead of “father” and “mother” like the other languages? In my research I haven’t found any other language that behaves like Finnish or even in a different way than the common trend, but there are many languages in the world and there may be other languages that have different ways of expressing this relationship. If someone knows more examples of languages that use “uncle” and “aunt”, or even totally different concepts, I would really like to read about it in the comments. So please, don’t hesitate to share it with us.

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What do the animals say?

It has been a while since I wanted to write a post about the sounds animals make in different languages, but I think that this is the right time for that due to a certain song that is getting very famous and raises a very interesting question.

It is rather interesting that even if animals do more or less the same sound in different countries, people have adapted them to the phonetics of their language to put into words these sounds. However, some studies show that animals also “speak different languages”, that is, use different series of sounds in different geographical areas. I have myself noticed that seagulls in Finland and in the North of Spain do not make the same sounds, since in my home-town you can listen to them all the time and somehow you know some of the series of sounds they do every day, but in Finland I have never heard them doing those particular series… Maybe they were speaking Finnish-seagull, who knows?

Let’s start comparing the sound that dogs make in different languages: In English dogs say “woof-woof”, similar to the German “wuff-wuff” and the French “wouaff-wouaff”. But in Spanish dogs say “guau-guau”, similar to the Italian “vau-vau”, the Finnish “hau-hau” and the Estonian “auh-auh”. But then we have other different sounds, like the Russian “gav-gav”, the Korean “mong-mong”, or the Ukranian “breshe”.

When it comes to cats there is more agreement in the different languages, but we can still find some very different examples. In English cats say “meow”, in Spanish, Danish, Hebrew, Portuguese, Hungarian, Swedish, Norwegian, and Finnish they go “miau”, in Italian and French they say “miao” and in Dutch they say “miauw”. But there are other cat languages, or so can be supposed from the fact that Japanese cats say “nyan”, in Korea they say “yaong”, and in Estonia they say “näu”.

Cats

What about cows? In English they say “moo”, which is what they say in most other languages, even if changing a bit the spelling. In Spanish, Portuguese, and Swedish they say “muu”, in Japanese they say “moh”, Norwegian cows go “mø”, and in Finland they say “ammuu”. But Polish cows for some reason say “yazoo”, in Estonia they say “mop”, and Dutch cows say “boe”. These last three examples are a bit curious, aren’t they?

Roosters have also a very peculiar sound that languages have tried to adapt but with different results: English roosters say “cook-a-doodle-do”, but in Spain they say “kikirikii” and in German “kikeriki”. French roosters prefer to say “cocorico”. In Korea rooster prefer to say something shorter, like “ko-ki-oh”, a preference not shared by Finnish (“kukkokiekoo”), Japanese (“kokekoko”), Norwegian (“kykkeliky”) or Swedish (“kuckeliku”).

Another farm animal, the pig, offers also some interesting variations: In English, Spanish, and Portuguese pigs say “oink”, but in Portuguese is often written “óinc”. Finnish pigs say “röh röh”, and Hungarian say “röf röf”. This f-ending is shared with Swedish “nöff nöff”, Norwegian “nøff nøff”, and Danish “øf øf”. French pigs say “groin groin” whereas German pigs say “grunz”. Dutch, Japanese, and Albanian offer the most interesting ones with “knor knor”, “bu-bu”, and “hunk” respectively.

Ducks are said to make the only sound that produces no echo, but how is this written in different languages? English ducks say “quack”, like the Spanish “cuack” and similar to the Finnish “vaak” and Turkish “vak”. French ducks say “coin” but Danish say “rap”, and Hungarian say “háp”. Romanian ducks say “mac”, and Estonian ducks win the prize to the strangest sound with their “prääks”.

English birds say the famous “tweet” that is nowadays well-known everywhere for other reasons, but in other languages they usually say something starting with “p”. In Spain they say “pio-pio”, in Portuguese “piu-piu”, in Swedish and Norwegian “pip pip” and in Japanese “pi pi”. In French they say “cui cui”, in Dutch “tjilp tjilp”, in Japanese “chun chun”, and in Finnish “tsirp tsirp”.

Sheep have two options: They can either say something that starts with “b” or something that starts with “m”. Sheep that preferred the “b” option moved to Spain, Hungary, Russia or Italy “bee”, Holand “bè bè”, England “baa”, France “bêê”, Germany “baehh”, or to Sweden “bä bä”. However, sheep that found easier to pronounce the letter “m” moved to Finland “mää”, Denmark “mæh-mæh”, Greece “maeee”, Japan “meh”, and Turkey “maeh”.

When it comes to horses we can find similar versions of the same sound. English horses say “wehee”, Spanish horses say something like “ihiiihihi”, Finnish horses say “iihahaa”, Dutch say “hihi”, and French, Italian and Japanese say “hiiiii”. But German, Hungarian, and Turkish horses are a bit different: They say “wiihiee”, “nyihaha”, and “e-he-he-he”.

And now, does anybody know what does the fox say in any language? ; )

Feel free to add some other sounds you know, or to correct some of these in the comments.